The following strategy should be used for applying USFM markup to project peripheral contents.

Content should be created in separate book files according to the general groupings presented in the table below. As with scripture text books, an \id marker is used for identifying the overall content of the peripheral file. Within each book, divisions (sub-sections) of content are denoted using the marker \periph followed by an additional division title. Content is added to books and divisions by re-purposing the most appropriate existing USFM marker for the selected content.

Some back matter content is large enough that it is most practical to store it within its own book file (Concordance, Glossary, Topical Index, Names Index). Content self contained within a separate book file does not require an additional identifier (only \id).

Peripheral Books and Divisions

Front Matter (\id FRT)

Introductions (\id INT)

Back Matter (\id BAK)




\periph Title Page

\periph Bible Introduction

\periph Chronology

\periph Half Title Page

\periph Old Testament Introduction

\periph Weights and Measures

\periph Promotional Page

\periph Pentateuch Introduction

\periph Map Index

\periph Imprimatur

\periph History Introduction

\periph LXX Quotes in NT

\periph Publication Data

\periph Poetry Introduction

Additional Back Matter

\periph Foreword

\periph Prophecy Introduction

Concordance (\id CNC)

\periph Preface

\periph Deuterocanon Introduction

Glossary (\id GLO)

\periph Table of Contents

\periph New Testament Introduction

Topical Index (\id TDX)

\periph Alphabetical Contents

\periph Gospels Introduction

Names Index (\id NDX)

\periph Table of Abbreviations

\periph Epistles Introduction

Other (\id OTH)

\periph Letters Introduction


\periph Cover

\periph Spine

Peripheral Identifiers


For peripheral books containing divisions, the division title is free-form, and may be expressed in the vernacular language. Whenever possible, a peripheral identifier should be associated with a \periph division marker. A set of standardized identifiers allow software processes to easily select content for recognized peripheral divisions. The syntax for peripheral identifiers follows the syntax for word level attributes: attribute = “value”. The attribute name is id. The value is wrapped in quotes.

Text sample with division identifier attributes:

\id FRT
\periph Title Page|id="title"
\mt1 Holy Bible
\mt3 with
\mt2 Deuterocanonicals/Apocrypha
\periph Foreword|id="foreword"
\h Foreword
\mt1 Foreword
\p The \bk Good News Translation\bk* of the Bible is a translation which seeks to state
clearly and accurately the meaning of the original texts in words and forms that are widely
accepted by people who use English as a means of communication.
\periph Table of Contents|id="contents"
\h Table of Contents
\mt Contents
\s Old Testament
\tr  \th1 Name  \thr2 Page \th3 Name \thr4 Page
\tr \tc1 Genesis \tcr2 # \tc3 Ecclesiastes \tcr4 #

Defined peripheral id values are shown in the peripheral divisions table above.

User Defined Peripheral Divisions

A project may add peripheral content for a division not defined in the current USFM set. The new division should begin with \periph, plus a division title, and with a user defined identifier id value beginning with the prefix x-.

USFM compliant publishing applications should consider the pre-defined divisions and identifiers as a reference for content to support.

Markup for Peripheral Divisions

In the following topics there is a recommendation and a brief description of the USFM markers which will be most appropriate for use in each peripheral content division. The recommended markup is sufficient for most projects and should be used as a first option. However, in general, any of the existing USFM standard markers may be used if the required content cannot be adequately encoded using the recommended set.

Any non-standard markers used in these books will need to be added to the stylesheet associated with the project.

Authoring peripheral materials within ParaTExt

Paratext includes the named peripheral books FRT, INT, BAK, CNC, GLO, TDX, NDX, and OTH in addition to a set of books named from XXA to XXG. These non-Biblical books appear at the end of a project’s list of books, and may be used to author the non-biblical text for Front Matter, Back Matter, Introductions, or any other kind of text which should be stored as part of the translation project.